Arsenic exposure analysis for children living in central China:
From ingestion exposure to biomarkers
Emerging evidence indicates that chronic low-dose arsenic (As) exposure can pose adverse health effects to children. This study aimed to systematically study the exposure risk induced by As ingestion in children living in Hubei Province, central China. The feasibility of first morning spot urine instead of 24-h urine as an environ- mental exposure biomarker was also explored. A total of 120 children aged 2–17 years were recruited from an urban area for the collection of biomarker samples (first morning and 24-h urine samples), environmental exposure samples (duplicate diets, drinking water, and soil), and related child-specific exposure factors.